Gigapedia: Hate Symbols and Online Codes
Exhibition Glossary

On a daily basis, memes, terms and catchphrases emerge from the depths of online forums to be repeatedly shared via social media platforms. Characterising the type of (visual) language known on the internet, this style of communication is used by various online communities to address certain radical topics, opinions or statements in often disguised or propagandistic ways–making the wide variety of codes and symbols hard to read for an outsider.

This glossary is created specifically for the exhibition GIGA, in which artist duo Jakob Ganslmeier and Ana Zibelnik delves into the dangerous and intricate landscape of online radicalisation, and explains the most commonly found terms and concepts within these communities.

Gigapedia: Haatsymboliek en Online Codetaal © Foam. Design by Hamid Sallali

Numeric Symbols

14: Fourteen Words: “We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children,” coined by white supremacist David Lane.  

18: The first and the eighth letter of the alphabet; ‘AH’ or Adolf Hitler.

88: The eighth letter of the alphabet; HH or Heil Hitler.

2083: A nod to Anders Breivik’s manifesto: ‘2083 – A European Declaration of Independence.’ The number 2083 stands for the year when the “Western European Civil War” was expected to be completed, all traitors executed, and all Muslims deported from Europe.

23/16: The twenty-third and sixteenth letters of the alphabet, W and P, meaning ‘White Power’ or ‘White Pride’.

100%: An expression denoting an individual's claimed pure Aryan or white heritage.

Appropriated ancient symbols

The Nazis appropriated various ancient European symbols to construct an idealized 'Aryan/Norse' heritage. Many of these symbols originated from the runic alphabet, such as the Futhark, which represents the oldest form of the runic alphabet used by Germanic and Scandinavian tribes between the 2nd and 10th centuries AD. While these symbols continue to be used in neo-pagan contexts, our focus here is on their utilization by Neo-Nazis and white supremacists. 

Black Sun: This symbol serves as a variation or substitute for the Nazi swastika. It was often used by the SS under Heinrich Himmler's leadership, leading to its adoption by neo-Nazis and modern white supremacists. 

Triskele: Another symbol representing the alleged supremacy of the white race, often used in place of the swastika. It is featured in the emblem of Blood & Honor, an international neo-Nazi network named after the motto and greeting of the Hitler Youth organization. 

Life Rune: Used in projects like the SS's Lebensborn (National Socialist Women's League) to symbolize life, health, family life, and the birth of children. 

Death Rune: Symbolizing death, often used in place of the Christian cross in obituaries and on tombstones. 

Tyr (Thor) Rune: Considered by many as the "warrior rune," frequently used as the emblem of neo-Nazi organizations such as the Nordic Resistance Movement. 

Othala Rune: Symbolizing heritage, post-World War II, white supremacists commonly adopted this rune, displaying it in tattoos, group logos, and various other contexts. 

- SS Lightning Bolts: Commonly used by white supremacists/neo-Nazis, derived from the Schutzstaffel (SS) of Nazi Germany.

- White Supremacist Celtic Cross: Originating from the pre-Christian "sun cross," this symbol was adopted by British neo-Nazis in 1950 after the discrediting of the swastika. It purportedly represents "White Europeans" in opposition to immigrants, connecting them to the "culture of the ancient Celts." 

Other symbols

Black and white picture of a hand making the OK sign

OK hand sign (also as emoji): Since the early 1800s, this gesture has been associated with the word “okay” or its abbreviation “ok.” Recently, it gained a new significance when white supremacists began using it to express the letters ‘wp,’ an abbreviation for ‘white power.’ 

HKNKRZ: “Hakenkreuz”, the German word for "swastika.” 

The Great Replacement: Coined by French writer Renaud Camus in 2011 in his book Le Grand Replacement, this term shares features with other conspiracy theories alleging plans to replace or dilute the ‘white race,’ similar to David Lane’s ‘white genocide conspiracy theory’ (ca. 1988). 

((( ))): Known as the "echo" or multiple parentheses, this typographical practice is used by online antisemites, typically with three pairs of parentheses around a person's name or term. It signifies to insiders that the person is Jewish or that the term is apparently associated with Jews. 

Day X: In 2017, supporters of the Reichsbürger movement planned an event called "Day X," symbolizing a day of reckoning or uprising against the German government. In April 2022, members affiliated with a Reichsbürger group aimed to establish a new government in Germany in the tradition of the German Empire of 1871. 

Reichsflagge and Reichskriegsflagge: Since wearing or publicly displaying National Socialist flags is prohibited, Right-wing extremists use these flags as legal substitutes for National Socialist flags during demonstrations. 

Day of the Rope: A phrase from the neo-Nazi fiction novel The Turner Diaries (1978) by William Luther Pierce, referring to a fictional event where mass lynchings target minorities, journalists, race-mixers, and politicians in a single day. 

The Confederate Flag: Originally the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia, later adopted by the Confederate States Army—a state formed by 13 slave-owning states that seceded from the U.S. to preserve slavery. Today widely recognized as a symbol of racism and white supremacy. 

ACAB: "All Cops Are Bastards" is a slogan used in the skinhead subculture, but its interpretation depends on context due to its use by both racist and non-racist groups. 

Meme characters

Cartoon drawing of a green frog with sentimental eyes - a popular internet meme named Pepe the Frog
Pepe the Frog: originating from the online cartoon Boy's Club in 2005, evolved into a popular internet meme. Initially devoid of racist or antisemitic connotations, users transformed the character into a meme with various expressions and contexts, including racist, antisemitic, or otherwise bigoted ones. It is widespread on platforms like 4chan, and 8chan. 

Wojak: (lit. soldier)— a hugely popular meme character known for its versatile ability to lend itself to several human stereotypes (see A bald man with a mild expression on his face. It is often used as a reaction image to represent feelings such as melancholy, regret or loneliness. Wojak memes as a genre have grown to include various remixes and edits to the character. 

Boomer (“OK Boomer”) is a dismissive reply often used to disregard and mock baby boomers or those perceived as old-fashioned out-of-touch. 

Zoomer: a colloquial name for the members of Gen Z. A variation of the Wojak character mocking Gen Z adolescents and young adults.  

30-Year-Old Boomer: used to mock older millennials. 

Doomer: a variation of the Wojak character; an early 20's male who suffers from depression and has a bleak outlook on the world and his future.  

Bloomer: a variation of the Wojak character; a character symbolizing an individual with an optimistic and proactive approach to life, typically in their late 20s. Someone who has transitioned from an unhealthy lifestyle and a state of depression to one characterized by self-love, acceptance, and motivation. 

Soyboy: Pejorative which is often used in right-wing online communities to describe men supposedly lacking masculine characteristics. 

Chad: A nickname for any attractive, popular men who are sexually successful with women. An alpha male.  

GigaChad: ‘GigaChad’, who was initially assumed to be a real person, is the ultimate ‘Chad’, an internet archetype representing an ultra-masculine, physically attractive male. Associated with the art project Berlin.1969 / Ernest Khalimov –  a series of photoshopped photographs of several models created by Russian photographer Krista Sudmalis.  

Tradwife: (‘traditional wifea female Wojak variation with blonde hair, wearing a blue floral shirt. Originated on 4chan in posts related to traditional and conservative values. The character often appears in Yes Chad memes and other Wojak Comics. 

Karen: an antagonistic female character. "Karen" is generally described as an irritating, entitled woman; someone who demands to ‘speak to the manager’ or wants to take custody of the kids. In 2020, the term was broadly applied to white women who had been filmed harassing people of colour, including dialling the police on them for no reason. 

Happy Merchant: an antisemitic meme depicting a drawing of a Jewish man with heavily stereotyped facial features, greedily rubbing his hands together. This meme is notably the most popular among white supremacists, who have generated a multitude of images and variants featuring the character.  

A sigma male prioritizes internal strength over social hierarchy and external validation. Preferring solitude and autonomy, the sigma male is not socially inept but rather socially disinterested, often perceived as pragmatic but possibly seen by others as aloof, paranoid, secretive, or selfish. The term became largely associated with popular culture characters like Christian Bale as Patrick Bateman (American Psycho), Cillian Murphy as Thomas Shelby (Peaky Blinders) or Jacob Elordi as Nate (Euphoria).  

See also: #sigmamindset 

Incel or Involuntary celibates believe they are entitled to a relationship with a woman but are incapable of finding a partner. Multiple acts of extreme violence and even murder have been attributed to this group. 


Portrait of Andrew Tate

Andrew Tate: British American influencer, self-described misogynist, the most googled person in 2023. In 2022, he and his brother were charged in Romania with rape, human trafficking, and forming an organized criminal group to sexually exploit women.  

Jordan Peterson: a Canadian psychologist, a controversial online personality (7.64M subscribers on YouTube), a traditionalist, also called the ‘custodian of the patriarchy.’ Advocating for a return to traditional values, much of Peterson's focus centres around his belief that the masculine spirit is under assault, viewing order as masculine and chaos as feminine. His book "12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos" offers what he sees as a remedy for the perceived overdose of femininity in contemporary culture.  

Joe Rogan: an American comedian, mixed martial arts commentator, and podcast host, widely recognized for 'The Joe Rogan Experience.' The podcast had been described by some as a "bastion of toxic masculinity." The show's audience is predominantly young men, and the featured topics lean towards right-wing ideologies and conspiracy theories. 

Richard Spencer: an American neo-Nazi, antisemitic conspiracy theorist, and white supremacist. A public speaker and activist on behalf of the alt-right movement. 

Will Witt: Will Witt is an American conservative media personality and political activist associated with the organization PragerU (Prager University). He is known for producing and sharing online videos that promote conservative political and cultural views. He is frequently featured as a commentator on platforms such as Fox News and The Blaze.  

Bjorn Höcke: A German politician and a member of Alternative für Deutschland (AfD). Höcke was the leader of the AfD's far-right Der Flügel faction, which the German government's Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution declared a right-wing extremist organization. 

Far-Right Terrorism

It is common for far-right terrorists to publish detailed online manifestos in which they outline their ideologies and motivations. Furthermore, they often refer to each other’s manifestos in their attacks. Before the 2019 Christchurch shootings, Brenton Tarrant cited Anders Behring Breivik (nowadays Fjotolf Hansen) – the man responsible for the 2011 Utoya attacks, and Dylann Roof (Charleston church shooting) in his manifesto. Tarrant, in turn, was cited by John T. Earnest (Poway synagogue shooting) and Patrick Crusius (El Paso shooting) among others. Many of these attacks were streamed over social media, with their manifestos published online beforehand, aiming to mobilize future incidents. On far-right online platforms, the attackers are often portrayed as 'saints' and 'martyrs', especially when their attacks are deemed 'successful'. Examples include Philip Manshaus (Bærum mosque shooting) and Stephan Balliet (Halle synagogue shooting). Subsequently, the online celebration of lone-actor terrorists has created a subculture of violent copycats—imitators who self-radicalize in cyberspace. 

Ideological 'Pills'

Image of a red pill

Red Pill: The red pill is the fundamental pill, signifying any form of political awakening. In extremist circles, being ‘redpilled’ indicates acceptance of at least one of the antisemitic, racist, and conspiratorial ideologies of the far-right movement. For many, it marks the initial descent into the rabbit hole towards radicalization. 

Blue Pill: The blue pill serves as the antithesis to the red pill. Taking the blue pill implies choosing to remain unaware of the workings of the world. To those who have embraced the red pill ideology, everyone else is considered bluepilled. 

Black Pill: For extremists on the far right, the black pill represents nihilism or the acknowledgment that the system is irreversibly corrupt. Swallowing the black pill signifies recognizing the futility of one’s circumstances. 

Green Pill: Symbolizing environmentalism, the green pill can denote eco-fascism within extreme right-wing circles—a blend of totalitarian fascism and radical environmentalism. 

Iron Pill: Consuming the iron pill commonly refers to weightlifting and physical fitness. Among the far right, being iron-pilled suggests engaging in physical training in anticipation of an impending race war. 


Image of a buste showing a muscular man's face. Buste by Arno Breker.

Manosphere: Refers to a network of websites, blogs, and forums promoting a supposedly beleaguered masculinity, misogyny, and opposition to feminism. 

Figures like Andrew Tate and Jordan Peterson offer online fans a sense of purpose by telling them to unleash man’s “primal” drives.  

Looksmaxxing: A TikTok trend adopted by young men aiming to improve their appearance through skincare, hairstyling, rigorous exercise routines, and facial and tongue exercises for a defined jawline.  

Bonesmashing: A viral trend related to looksmaxxing, involving hitting one's face with a blunt object to create microfractures, believed to enhance facial features and jawline definition. 

Mewing: A technique involving flattening the tongue against the roof of the mouth over time to realign teeth and define the jawline. 

Hunter Eyes: A term originating from online blackpill communities, describing a hooded eye shape with an upward canthal tilt, often discussed in forums critiquing physical appearance. 

Glow up: Users sharing before-and-after transformation videos, highlighting physical changes and personal growth. 

Bitch Voice: A term used mainly by men on TikTok to describe the internal voice which tells one to quit, hindering one's training progress. The opposite is the so-called “Boss voice.” 

White Boy Summer: A song by Chet Hanks, son of actor Tom Hanks, released in 2021. Initially, the song was not intended as hateful (there have been discussions regarding its possible hidden implications), however, white supremacists have adopted the slogan, infiltrating mainstream conversations on platforms like Telegram and TikTok.  

Lactose Tolerance (#drinkmilk): Used by the alt-right as a symbol of racial purity, claiming correlation between lactose tolerance and race similar to the dietary racism of the 19th century (colonizers classifying colonized populations as ‘rice eaters’).  

European Classic (#europeanclassic): a type of video compilation popularised on TikTok, featuring folkloristic content, praising Europe’s landscape, people, traditions, achievements etc.  

Aryan Classic / Defend Europe / Save Europa (saveurope / saveuropa / etc.)- TikTok content promoting racist and white supremacist ideas, often referencing fascist symbols like the Nazi Black Sun and the Great Replacement Theory. 

Arno Breker: accounts promoting Aryan Classic content often use images of sculptures made by Arno Breker, the Hitler-appointed official state sculptor of the Nazi Party.  

Arno Breker Fade: A hairstyle resembling those seen on Breker's statues, characterized by an undercut. 

Groups & Movements

Active Club: A decentralized network of gym clubs espousing white supremacist ideologies, inspired by Robert Rundo’s Rise Above Movement (R.A.M.). Members perceive themselves as warriors training for an ongoing conflict against a system they allege is actively targeting the white race. Example: Active Club Dietsland. 

Fashwave: A musical sub-genre of Vaporwave, an electronic music genre, Fashwave was created to propagate white supremacist ideals, deriving its name from "Fascism." 

Kekistan: A fictitious nation conceived by users of the 4chan platform, evolved into a political meme and online movement, named after the deity 'Kek.' During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Kek became associated with alt-right politics, controversial due to its resemblance to a Nazi-era flag (see below). Members from the 4chan subculture, spanning both mainstream and extreme right, frequently display the Kekistan flag at rallies and events. 

Boogaloo movement (Boogaloo Bois): A decentralized ideological network anticipating a second U.S. civil war, colloquially termed the “boogaloo,” likely originating on 4chan. The movement embraces anti-government and anti-law enforcement rhetoric. Members, often identified by Hawaiian-style shirts, comprise diverse factions, some associated with extremist ideologies, including white supremacy. 

White Lives Matter: Emerged in 2015 as a white supremacist counter to the Black Lives Matter movement. Neo-Nazis, Ku Klux Klan groups, and other white supremacists have adopted the phrase to recruit new members and rally support for notions of "white genocide" and a white ethnostate. 

Three Percenters: A far-right anti-government militia active in the United States and Canada, advocating for gun ownership rights and resistance against the federal government. Named after the belief that “only 3% of colonial forces opposed King George III's tyranny during the American Revolution.” 

Identitarian Movement: A far-right, ethno-nationalist movement advocating pan-European nationalism, ethnopluralism, or the Great Replacement theory. Framed as a response to perceived threats from immigration, multiculturalism, and globalization, Identitarians push for strict immigration policies to safeguard cultural and ethnic heritage. The movement's symbol, Lambda, is inspired by Spartan shields depicted in the movie 300 (2006). 

Proud Boys: A right-wing extremist organization known for its violent agenda and promotion of misogynistic, Islamophobic, transphobic, and anti-immigrant sentiments. Some members subscribe to white supremacist and antisemitic ideologies and were involved in the January 6, 2021 U.S. Capitol attack. The group asserts that men and Western culture are under siege, using "Western chauvinism" as a euphemism for the white genocide conspiracy theory. 

NSBM: National Socialist black metal is a political movement and subgenre within the black metal music scene advocating neo-Nazism, neo-fascism, and white supremacist ideologies. NSBM artists typically blend neo-Nazi imagery and ideology with ethnic European paganism, Satanism, Nazi occultism, or a combination thereof, vehemently opposing Christianity, Islam, and Judaism from a racialist perspective.


"Diversity = White Genocide": This slogan suggests that increasing cultural diversity will result in the extinction or displacement of white people. 

"Muh Holocaust": An antisemitic meme mocking Jewish people by insinuating that they excessively lament or exaggerate the Holocaust. The term "Muh" is a slang abbreviation for "My". 

"It's Okay to Be White": This phrase originated on 4chan in 2017 as a campaign to provoke reactions from liberals by posting flyers in public spaces. The intention was to highlight what the originators perceived as hypocrisy in the liberal response to affirmations of white identity. 

About the artists

Jakob Ganslmeier (1990, München) is a photographer and visual artist based in The Netherlands. He has a master’s degree in Photography & Society from the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten (The Hague). Ganslmeier’s focus lies on dissecting the visual representation of radical ideologies and providing an opposing narrative through an interactive artistic approach.

Ana Zibelnik (1995, Ljubljana) is a visual artist and photographer with a master's degree in Film and Photographic Studies from the University of Leiden. Her work delves into ecological crises, climate fear and the social implications of these. In 2022, Ganslmeier and Zibelnik joined forces to form a duo.

About the exhibition at Foam

GIGA shows a compilation of three videos that shed light on online radicalisation on social media. Throug these works, artist duo Jakob Ganslmeier en Ana Zibelnik dissect the striking visual language that is used online to spread certain, controversial, philosophies.

With the exhibition GIGA, Foam not only aims to illustrate the complexities around the imagery on our social media, but also looks to contribute to the overall media literacy of its users. By fostering awareness regarding the incessant influx of images encountered and shared daily, the exhibition aims to elucidate how this phenomenon gradually allows radical propaganda to permeate and shape our worldview.

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Bereitschaft, 2024 © Jakob Ganslmeier and Ana Zibelnik.

GIGA – Jakob Ganslmeier and Ana Zibelnik is made in collaboration with Paradox.

This exhibition is made possible with the support of the Van Bijleveltstichting, the Leeuwensteinstichting, Mondriaan Fonds and Fonds ZOZ.

Foam is supported by the VriendenLoterij, Foam Members, the VandenEnde Foundation and the City of Amsterdam.

Gigapedia: Hate Symbols and Online Codes Exhibition Glossary – Article | Foam: all about photography This glossary is created specifically for the exhibition 'GIGA' at Foam, in which artist duo Jakob G [...]
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Gigapedia: Exhibition Glossary. About the work of Jakob Ganslmeier and Ana Zibelnik